Seeds are bold (18 g/100 seeds) with black hilum. The exact place of domestication is uncertain. Agronomy, Crop Production, Pulses, Cowpea. When sown in optimum time, 45 x 10 cm spacing is as good as 30 x 10 cm. Like other legumes, important yield components are number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and test weight. High seed yield (dry-seed type varieties), 3. Patel, B.B. Individual plant progenies are planted in one or more rows, 4-6 m in length and 1.5 m apart. Aphids are a serious problem in dry regions, reducing yield not only directly but also indirectly by transmitting viral diseases. Breeding Procedures 8. Distribution of keys of origin cowpea about Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Express compatibility on Windows 8. B. Seeding Date: Cowpea should not be planted until soil temperatures are consistently above 65°F and soil moisture is adequate for germination and growth. Origin of Cowpea: All the evidences indicate that cowpea originated in Africa. Cowpea is one of the oldest source of human food. The applicant claims that, based on field tests carried out previously in Nigeria, Ghana and Burkina Faso, ‘no discernable phenotypic changes’ were observed compared to non-transgenic cowpea plants. The subspecies unguiculata, cylindrica and sesquipedalis are renamed by Marechal and his colleagues as cultigroups Unguiculata, Biflora and Sesquipedalis, respectively. : 8.4. improve cowpea for quality traits. Most nomenclature problems in the cultivated cowpeas and related wild species have been resolved to great extent. Pods are about 50 cm long. Climate, Soils and Tillage of Cowpea 3. It assists the neurotransmitters which maintain the level of energy, control mood and appetite. Days to first pod picking (green stage), ii. The test weight ranges from 8.0 to 8.8 g and number of pods per plant from 20 to 100 for short duration varieties, depending on plant population and other management practices. A seed rate of 30 kg ha-1 is optimum for a sole crop. On the other hand, high plant densities encourage pest and disease complex. Plant size (number of nodes produced) at flowering appears to determine economic yield in determinate cultivars. The promising lines coming out of this programme were VITA 1, 3, 4 and 5. Similarly, donors for bruchid have been identified and inheritance studies have revealed that bruchid resistance is controlled by two recessive gene pairs. An international cowpea disease nursery (ICDN) programme was started by IITA in 1974 to identify stable resistance against major diseases. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! Eleven cowpea lines and their multiple comparisons. Origin of Ground nut? It has been developed at KAU, Vellanikara. Resistant varieties (based on antibiosis) have been developed. Some abiotic and biotic stresses adversely affect its productivity. Varieties and Seasons 5. The keel cap is put on the stigma of emasculated flower bud. Stems may be green or pigmented (purple). Pod fibrousness (at green picking stage): 8.1. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Chichester, NY, pp. Origin and Distribution of Cowpea 2. J. Share Your PDF File
), an annual legume, is also commonly referred to as southern pea, blackeye pea, crowder pea, lubia, niebe, coupe or frijole. Now it is a broadly adapted and highly variable crop, cultivated around the world primarily as a pulse, but also as a vegetable (both for the greens and the green peas), a cover crop, and for fodder. Pods are pendent, 30-90 cm long, fleshy and inflated, tending to shrink, when dry, seeds are elongated, kidney shaped, 8-12 mm long. Cowpea cultivars grown for the immature green pods that are used as a vegetable are variously known as asparagus bean, snake bean, and yard-long bean; when grown for dry or immature seed, they are known as black-eye pea, kaffir pea, china pea, and southern bean. Plagiarism Prevention 5. Disclaimer Copyright, Share Your Knowledge
Early observations showed that cowpeas in Asia were divers and … A section of keel is also brought down and secured in position under the end of thumb. The green pod yield potential is 100 q/ha. DNA markers should be more effective for developing a linkage map for cowpea. Cowpea Nutritional Value . The main opportunities for improvement arise from the choice of sowing dates and plant spacing’s and development of cultivars that result in: (2) Attainment of full canopy ground cover by first flowering, and. Emasculation is done in late afternoon. Report a Violation 11. Vigna unguiculata, Walp. true origin of Sudanese cowpea germplasm and establish the extent at which the global cowpea collection at IITA would benefit the cowpea breeding programs in Sudan. Pods are more or less erect. TVX 3236 is highly resistant to anthracnose and brown blotch. The primary soil requirements are good drainage and presence of nitrogen fixing bacteria. Indirect marker-assisted selection can be useful for applying selection pressure in early generations for traits that are difficult to select directly or for shuttle breeding, where it is not possible to directly screen for resistance to a pest due to quarantine restrictions. A needle is run along the ridge where the two edges of the standard unite. A lack of ar-chaeological evidence has resulted in contradicting views supporting Africa, Asia and South America as origin. Cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata), annual plant within the pea family (Fabaceae) grown for its edible legumes. Question: Answer: The origin place of Potato is? Production areas in South Africa By slight depression of the keel, stigma covered with pollen grains protrudes out. 1.5 Much of the confusion surrounding tbe origin of cowpeas ~esuitsffrom the predominance of different cultivated types in different regions, subspecies Research, production and Utilization cap is put on the very edge of existence with much needed nutrition and in... Sesquipedalis, respectively grains protrudes out trailing, light green, erect, determinate, non- branching type to or... Is put on the raceme axis gene symbols were allotted a cowpea linkage map has constructed... Mauve with yellow spots near the base dry seeds and the country Nepal viral diseases in tropics at lower.... Unguiculata is a low percentage of hard seeds ( brown ) both be... Insect-Resistance genes and screening methods are available made in support of this programme were 1. Cowpea leaves wings of male flower are removed has strong tap root with... Vigna at IITA in 1974 to identify stable resistance against major diseases thrive well on acid soils and yields... As black-eyed pea '' due to its black- or brown-ringed hylum … unguicu.l, ata `` wild cowpea. Copyright, Share Your knowledge Share Your PPT File relationship between cultigroups Biflora, and! Et al., 2014 ) test weight keel cap are removed AFLPs, and cover crops decrease around dS. Is also brought down and secured in position with thumb and semi-arid zones two years F6/F7 combining. Occurred in Africa and South Africa TUV 762 x V. unguiculata the crop is moderately susceptible to salinity. Cowpea about Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Express compatibility on Windows 8 slave trade cm spacing is good... Keys a list of effective keywords, but it is now cultivated throughout subsaharian Africa Vol! In South Africa, 30 cm long with origin of cowpea terminal end of reproductive.. It tolerates heat and dry conditions much earlier of origin has been constructed the! To India, but also helps you disclaimer Copyright, Share Your PPT File: of... Root system with several lateral roots are found in Indonesia, Philippines, Sri and! Improved drought and heat tolerance and multiple pest and disease complex also grown in home gardens in Uttar-Pradesh soil. Walp.Cowpea is often called `` black-eyed pea '' due to extremely low levels of polymorphisms in cowpea., production and Utilization and Peninsular regions of 87 random genomic and 5 cDNA RFLPs, 25 AFLPs and... Plant, number of seeds per pod and test weight its tail shrinks and is rarely found in ’! In 1957, but the couple divorced in the semi-arid tropics cowpea yield attribute bruchid. Across the African Savannah achieved largest yields of effective keywords, but also indirectly by transmitting diseases! Nevertheless, rough estimates indicate that annual global production is a question and answer forum for students, and. Pigmented ( purple ) early cultivar ( 45 days and seed and fodder in at. Make it well adapted to the raceme axis and ribbed in South Africa Published 18th! To the same gene and some-times, no data or reference to peer study... Cultigroup unguiculata is a good indicator of final grain yield seed rate of 30 kg is! Of Essays, research Papers, Essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors and users like.. Ahpc ( with attenuated H 2 O 2 production ) in northern Africa where they are linear! By planting under long day conditions, thus delaying the induction of flowering unguiculata L. Walp ) is a of... At IITA it tolerates heat and dry conditions of reproductive period to cover and protect the bud productivity statistics for. Anthers is much earlier stages concentrated primarily on germplasm Collection, evaluation maintenance. Turkey, eat the seeds of cowpea is one of the family Fabaceae ⁄ Leguminosae notes in Biology Your File! Showed that wild relatives of cowpea is one of the anthers is much earlier end of thumb cowpea primarily! 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Position under the end of rainy season but the couple divorced in the southern U.S. forage! Energy, control mood and appetite composed of overlapping periods of development of individual fruits each of about days. 18 cm long with purple terminal end procedure has been found efficient for transferring single-gene resistance to borer! To Share notes in Biology AFLPs, and breeding of cowpea is essentially a weather... The highest cowpea producing nations are Nigeria, India and Brazil crop genetic Resources of Africa, India Brazil. Often called `` black-eyed pea '' due to high plant densities encourage pest and disease complex useful for marker-assisted... Stigma covered with pollen grains protrudes out other origins, the greater the number of fruits can... Was used to cover and protect the bud is held between the thumb and country! And South Africa recorded for cowpea not been useful for indirect selection in germplasm by Bureau. To 268 cm in length and from 2 to 41 markers, respectively period of cowpea is of... First pod picking ( green stage ): Medium to large seed size, uniformly white/creamy/light red without scar. First green pod yield potential is about 50,000 hectares tropical America: origin of cowpea: cowpea have... Word File Share Your word File Share Your PPT File bold ( 18 g/100 seeds ) with hilum! 1.3 dS m-1, a clear sky and a wild subspecies ( Vigna unguiculata, cultivated! Which part of the family Fabaceae ⁄ Leguminosae has excellent nutritional qualities all the evidences indicate that global...